TYPES OF LIGHT SOURCES

Body: 

•Incandescent
•Halogen
•Fluorescent
•Compact Fluorescent
•Metal Halide
•LED

Incandescent

Incandescent lamps are the oldest and most
common form of lighting. All “standard” light
bulbs (lamps) are incandescent.

12V Halogen

12V Halogen lamps are now a very common
form of lighting. They produce a very crisp,
clean, bright “white” light. Halogens last
longer than incandescent bulbs and provide
more light (lumens) per watt.

Features:-

• Extended Lamp Life
• A better quality of light
• More energy efficient
• A 50watt halogen is equal to
approximately 75 watts incandescent.

Tip : When dimming all halogen lamps turn
the dimmer up to full for 2 -3 seconds before
switching off. This allows tungsten deposits to
burn off the glass, thus increasing the life of the
lamp.

240V HALOGEN

Mains voltage halogen lamps operate direct from
the mains, without the need for a transformer
and can be dimmed: making them quick and
easy to install, simple to operate and lowering
installation and user costs.

There are a number of different types available;
the following are the most common:

GU10

These are most commonly used in spots and
recessed downlights. The light output is not as
“White” and they produce approximately 20%
less light than 12V halogen.

Halogen Tubes (QI R7 Lamps)

These are most commonly used in ceiling
mounts and wall washers, standing lamps and
security lights. Many different wattages are
also available. There are two lengths 78mm and
118mm. These are not energy efficient.

G9 Halogen

This new technology is similar to 12volt bulbs,
but without the need for a transformer.

Features:

• No transformers required
• Reduced installation and initial cost
• Easy to change
• Can be easily dimmed using a standard
dimmer
• Average lamp life: 2000hrs
• A 50W 240V halogen lamp is equivalent to 60
incandescent watts

Fluorescent:

Fluorescent lighting is incredibly energy efficient.
It has many different colour options from cool
white to daylight, which can vary the feeling of a
room dramatically.

Features:

• Extended lamp life (average 8000hrs)
• High lumen output
• Energy efficient – they consume as little as
20% of the electricity an incandescent bulb
would perform the same task and they last up
to 20 times longer.
• Fluorescent lamps provide a more dispersed
light than other light sources.
• This is a task light, study, offices, kitchen,
scullery, workshops, bathrooms etc.

Tip: Whenever you replace a fluorescent tube a
new starter should also be installed. Old starters
tend not to supply correct ignition voltage to the
tube, this will reduce the life of the tube.

Compact Fluorescent

Are just as the name suggests, they sometimes
referred to as energy savers. They are
available in different wattages including
8,11,14,18,20,23,32.

Features:

• Extended lamp life (average 8000 hrs)
• High lumen output
• Energy efficient
• Small compact sizes
• Available in BC, ES and SES

The equivalent wattage of incandescent can
be calculated by multiplying the fluorescent
wattage by 5.

Example: a 32W fluorescent is equivalent to
160 incandescent watts.

Metal Halide & Sodium ( High Intensity
Discharge)

Metal Halide lamps are the most energy
efficient light source available. They give out
more light (lumens) per watt than any other
light source.

You can get varying colour temperatures from
a warm yellow to a crisp white, the whiter the
light the more detail and texture you show
on the surface you are lighting. They are
predominantly used in outdoor and commercial
lighting fixtures. (Clothing stores, shoe shops,
jewellery stores).

LED – Light Emitting Diode

Characteristics / Product Features

• LED lamps are available in both 12V and 220-
240V.
• LED lamps come in warm white and day light,
non-dimmable and dimmable.
• LEDs range from 0.1W to 100W.
• The lifespan of an LED depends on its
operational and environmental temperature.
At room temperature LEDs and LED modules
have a very long lifespan of up to 25 000
hours.

Advantages and benefits of product

• LEDs conserve energy, cut costs and generate
very little heat.
• LED lamps make an important contribution to
protecting our environment, the orientation
of insects that are active at night are not
disturbed by LED light. Animals react almost
imperviously to its spectral composition –
suitable for Eco Estates.
• LEDs are durable against impact and
vibration, and can be operated at a low
voltage, even when starting up; (generator
friendly).

Advantages for design, architecture and lighting
arrangements

• There are LEDs with high value white light
produced by the additive colour mixture (RGB
– red, green, blue mixture).
• LEDs have no UV or IR radiation in their
spectrum. This means that even sensitive
objects are not put under stress and can
be illuminated at close range, good for
illuminating art work, museums and food.
• LEDs are ideal for spot lighting and represent
an economical alternative to halogen and
incandescent reflector lamps. Suitable for
replacing existing down lighter globes.
• Recommended for double volume areas, due
to long life and labour saving on replacement
of lamps.
• The retro fit LED lamp is recommended rather
than the fixed unit. When the lamp fails you
are only replacing the lamp and not the entire
fixture.

Lamp Failure Checklist

• Voltage fluctuation between 230 and
240Volts
• What is the wattage rating of the fitting, if
exceeded the life of the lamp will decrease
dramatically and it is also a fire hazard
• Vibration – excess vibration will cause the
filament to break
• Insulation (Think Pink) over down lights will
cause shortened lamp life due to heat build
up.
• Linear halogen – the glass should not be
touched with bare hands when replacing the
lamp, as oil from skin can cause hot spots on
the quartz resulting in premature failure.
• Electronic Compact Fluorescents cannot be
dimmed
• When replacing 12 volt, ensure lamp is fitted
tightly into lamp holder to avoid arcing and
potential fire hazard.
• Frequent switching, both on and off will
greatly reduce the life of a lamp.

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